To state that the Quran is God’s Speech is an extraordinary claim. It is astounding, especially if you call to mind the full signification of the term ‘God’. We are in fact referring to the reality and source of everything, including the whole cosmos. His vastness let alone His essence cannot be fathomed by the human mind. There are no signs or indications that would allow us to uncover and know Him directly. So when the Quran claims that it is God’s speech - His words, sentences, statements, style of expression, and way of thinking - it is a mighty statement.
The Quran is the ‘Straight Path’ consisting of God’s injunctions, exhortations and promises. It makes claims relating to the process of creation, states facts, and deals with the origin of the world and the universe. It reminds us of the reality of death and gives us assurances of life after death; the paths to both Heaven and Hell are made plain. It talks about gender and birth and even mentions the role of genes in reproduction. In fact it explains in detail the foetal stages of development prior to birth. The laws of marriage and divorce are clearly set out. The Quran also contains tales of temptations and whisperings, it reminds us of forgotten stories with timeless truths, and it signposts our future and final destination. In short every aspect of the social, economic and cultural aspect of human existence is dealt with in the Quran. God has mentioned everything in His own words, providing us with the advice and guidance we need to live fulfilling lives.
The Quran deals with a vast range of subjects and issues. Despite this we do not find inconsistency in its style or contradictions in its message. It maintains a secure and confident tone and a refined and elegant style throughout. There is no other book in the world that is completely free from perversions of language or meaning. Its eloquence and clarity is such that with one phrase it conveys what would take volumes. The Lord of the universe has utilised every technique of persuasion and communication; skies of generosity and compassion burst forth as well as warnings of wrath and punishment. Upon reading it you get a feeling that the author of this book has to be God, even if this may not be the case. His kindness is untainted with self-interest and knows no bounds. It is truly divine and you will never find, let alone imagine, anyone as compassionate as Him. His power and authority rise above all. It is impossible to envisage any rival or partner. He is self-sufficient and openly proclaims His independence from everyone and everything. Yet His concern and affection clings to humanity right up to the moment of death; the door of salvation remains open until the very last breath.
It is an astonishing and wonderful book. The ancient Arab is proud, arrogant and eloquent. He looks down on all others when it comes to mastery over language. But when the Quran gives him the challenge of producing a verse of equal power and expression, he admits defeat. His tribal pride hangs its head in shame. The Quran alone has been blessed with this miracle of language. No other book can claim this. Literary masterpieces are respected because their choice of words and phrases are so masterly that any alternative way of expression cannot be imagined. The language of the Quran is inimitable. No commentary or translation (and there are thousands to choose from) has ever been able to approach the mastery of the Quranic language either in its form or meaning.
The preservation of the Quran from alterations is unprecedented for any book; not a single dot or a letter has been added or removed since its revelation over fifteen centuries ago. The effect that it has on its readers is also profound. It has the power to change hearts even if it is simply recited. There is no work of prose in the world that can be read with such beauty and impact on its listeners. Quran reciters, despite their sublime voices, are left with a feeling that they have still not done justice to the verses of the Quran. Its preservation is so complete that even the way certain letters should be pronounced is documented. The idea of distorting or modifying its words did not stand a chance. Such protection suggests a power greater than Man. The integrity of the Quran was safeguarded primarily by its followers, but those who rejected it also played a part. If this book contained errors and inconsistencies would Communist Russia have kept quiet? They would have screamed out and proclaimed that the Quran’s integrity is questionable, its message is corrupted, it cannot be relied on.
You may argue that the fact of preservation is not really a miracle, and nor is it proof of God’s existence. However, you will have to at least admit that there is one claim of the Quran that for fifteen hundred years not a single intellectual has been able to deny – ‘ It is we who have sent down this reminder (Quran) and We will ensure its preservation’. The tears that have flowed from the eyes of its reciters are more than those shed by Mankind for all their calamites and disasters put together. The Quran is preserved in the minds of Mankind with diligence. No other book in the world can boast of being committed to memory the way the book of God can. The world looks in amazement at the sheer love and devotion the Muslims afford to the Quran – a legacy passed on from one generation to another. This is the same Quran that God presents as evidence of His existence. The fact that a thing is not visible to your eye doesn’t mean it does not exist. Many ordinary things cannot be observed by the human eye. We cannot see the air around us; does that mean it does not exist? Is it possible to see the atom with our naked eye? If to observe certain things we need specialist tools and expertise, then to glance at God we need the vision of Muhammad (PBUH). Mankind is unable to reach this level.
The Quran is also unique in its definition of God and description of His attributes. No other book in the world presents such an accessible and layered understanding of God’s importance, essence and attributes. You will not find a broader or greater concept of God anywhere else. In Judaism God is seen as a tribal chieftain who chooses a specific race of people for special treatment, and the rest of Mankind are excluded from enjoying the cool shade of His compassion. The Christian concept of God is more limited than this. He is more like a family man, seen as the Patriarch of the family. These views of God were not taught by Jesus or Moses. When we read the statements of the Prophets in the Quran it is clear that not a single one had any doubt on Gods sovereignty, greatness and inclusivity. But the minds of their people moved towards misguidance, distortion and corruption of their message. So the idea of God was restricted so much that later social anthropologists would conclude that God was a product of the limited self-interest of individual social groups. This is why God felt a need in the Quran to describe Himself and His attributes to us in his own words, so that people would fulfil their obligations towards Him and not compare His greatness and majesty to anything else. As time went by civilisation developed, knowledge and wisdom grew, and new horizons of research and learning were opened up. All this gave us an opportunity to verify God’s claims of Himself and the Cosmos. It is only through knowledge that we can recognise God. The Quran states:
‘It is only those with knowledge that know the best, and they are the ones who are enveloped in God’s cloak of knowledge’
Quran is knowledge; and knowledge is Quran. Not only does the Quran invite us to think and reflect but it also identifies those subjects that will enable Man to achieve the best outcomes. Its viewpoint questions our assumptions about life - that it has an independent existence in and of itself, and reminds us that it is fleeting and will come to an end. In the broader context of the Cosmos, the Earth and our Galaxy are like grains of sand kicked up during the course of a long journey. This observation is based on facts. The size and population of the human race continues to grow. It cannot, however, go beyond the capacity that the Earth has to support. The never-ending expansion of the human population cannot continue forever. Human life will inevitably come to an end. There are many assumptions that Man declares with conviction to be eternal truths: yet in the eyes of God they are implausible and incorrect.
Earth was never meant to be a permanent abode for Mankind. Nor is the human race eternal. The Earth is not a self-sustaining place; its resources are finite and diminishing. Its climate can suddenly change making it uninhabitable. In cosmic terms, the Earth is a unique planet produced as a result of extraordinary conditions. No other planet or star is known to support similar life forms as planet Earth. The conclusions of scientific research into extra terrestrial life appear to be in line with the unique planet theory. How irrational and absurd is it then to believe that the Earth is our permanent home and will last forever in its current state. Perhaps we live in the hope that when the conditions that make life sustainable on Earth no longer exist, we will by then be able to migrate to another part of the universe. However, this would only be for a few hundred people at the most, and not for the billions of humans that currently reside on Earth. No other planet is blessed with the conditions that would allow it to sustain such a large number of people. For the present, inter-galactic migration and space cities are the stuff of science fiction and crazy dreams. Not all dreams come true! How can any intelligent and knowing person deny the fact that the cosmos, world and life are upheld by a conscious and intelligent reality? This being is the author of the Quran and He makes His claim to the cosmos in its verses. The Quran adopts many different styles to impart its message, but it underlines the importance of knowledge when it comes to understanding reality. This is the only benchmark. It is only those with knowledge and insight who are able to recognise the veracity of God’s statements. According to the Quran there is always somebody more knowledgeable than the most learned person we know. The most intelligent and wise person is the one who has the most perfect understanding of the Quran. As Hazat Ali once remarked ‘I too read the same Quran as you are reading, but the difference is that I have been blessed with unlimited understanding’.
There is no hint of imitation in the Quran. Its tone is firm, authoritative and decisive. Ptolemy, the Greek philosopher, claimed that the Earth is stationary; yet the Quran declares with absolute clarity that the whole universe is in motion and every planet and star is moving in its own orbit. When the prevalent views about the creation of the universe were based on mythologies, the Quran proclaimed clearly that there was only a single atom of matter when the Universe was created which ‘split asunder’ leading to the creation of the Cosmos. As for life on Earth, its origin was water. Centuries before Einstein, the Quran informs us that the universe is expanding.
Man has always been fascinated with sheer size and magnitude. The glory of the Sun had almost a divine status in the past, and even today, a majestic, dazzling star - the source of life and light. In every age it has been considered worthy of worship and respect. It has not diminished in its glory either now or then. Yet in the words of the Quran, it is no more than a lamp, just like countless other lamps that God has adorned the universe with. The process by which these came into existence may be described as the clashing of stars. Even with our modern instruments we have not been able to understand the far-reaching impact and effect of these collisions at the dawn of time. God describes this matter as rocks. The language is of pre-modern times, but the information that is being imparted is truly modern. The big issues of the end of life and the universe are clearly explained. In the dark curtain of doubt the questions of the present age are studded like pearls but answers are impossible to find.
The planning and vision of modern Man extends over five, ten or fifty years. These are the limits of our certainty. The planner of the Quran, on the other hand, created a master plan (Lauh-e-Mahfooz) for the universe fifty thousand years before it came into being. He gave the order for the plan to be implemented and let it be. Is it not strange then, to imagine that God, who is fully aware of the origin of life and the universe, and also its end, was not aware of the intelligence and mentality of modern Man? He did not take their advances in knowledge into account as He did not foresee the capacity of His own creation; and nor was he aware of the changes in society and economy that were to occur? If this were the case then there would be no congruence between the established findings of modern science and the Quran. At best the Quran would reflect the common state of knowledge in the early dark ages. This is not the case.
According to the Quran Man is a hasty and simple-minded creature who cannot shoulder the weight of his intellectual arrogance and pride. He is weak and cannot cope with the notion of power, let alone power itself. He is also weak as he has been unable to make his mind rule over his base instincts. This self-proclaimed paragon of intelligence and sheer genius overlooked the most basic facts. Having once walked along the lofty peaks of the straight path He is now lost in the depths of doubt and desire. Is it the mark of intelligence to ignore the single most important question of life and death, and to act like a disgruntled child who just refuses to listen because they are upset? In their arrogance and pride the Kings of the East and West declared that they were gods - was Man really the son of Adam? To regard Man as human and merely mortal was seen as a backward step in the advance of the species! The reptilian instinct driven Homo Habilis and Homo Erectus was visible once again. The powerful men became willing captives to the base and primitive instincts that humans share with animals; and they could not escape the consequences of their arrogance and oppression. Pharaoh was destroyed by the waves.
Today the Pharaohs of Egypt lie in expectation of another tragedy of the Nile to occur. The intellectual Dajjal of America and Europe is in no mood to heed the lessons from the decaying bones of tyrants such as Genghis and Hulagu Khan. Perhaps the God of power and fury has stationed Himself along the path along which human society, in a fit of madness and transgression, is moving. He has taken aim and is ready to launch an attack. What does the future hold for human society - anger and hatred, death and destruction, annihilation and devastation? This is the path that we have chosen. We are only one step away from making our planet flow with rivers of sulphur and molten iron; where the only drink will be a poisonous throat ripping substance, and in the midst of the ruins the only things to grow will be cacti; and mile upon mile of ditches and craters of erupting lava. This will lead to the Day of Judgment. Death will be no more. The cloak of pain (human skin) will be changed again and again but the feeling of pain will be constant.
Perhaps there are only a few gasps of life that remain. Is it not time that the people of intelligence and wisdom feel the need of the Quran? There is still time to ponder and reflect; just enough time to glance at the data of God contained within the covers of the Quran. We should not reject the call to investigate. Denial should only come after understanding and recognition. Man cannot find solace before he dies except by being certain that all he believed in was on the basis of truth and integrity. When one surveys the state of knowledge before the Quran, one is left with the impression that contradiction and confusion was the lot of Mankind.
We must acknowledge the ancient world of learning whose intellectuals and sages are to this day hailed as masters. The legacy left by the intellectual maturity of the thinkers of Greece, Egypt and Rome, their love of learning, and their footprints are to this day beacons of guidance. Nobody can claim that they are better than Socrates; and who can deny the deep and piercing intellect of Aristotle and Plato? If on one side we find the brilliant minds of Zeno and Diogenes, on the other are the piercing intellects who, with their questions, are extending the limits of intellectual and transmitted knowledge to soaring heights. This period saw the birth of many new sciences – maths, geometry, philosophy, wisdom. We can even find the early indications of the discipline of sociology in their thought. Plutarch and Cicero of Rome appear like the Russel and Whitehead of today.
Following the guidance of the ancient scholars later generations were able to acquire increased knowledge, and the caravan of thought was led to the next stage of its journey. Ptolemy’s study of the solar system, despite its flaws, laid the foundations of a new science. The pioneers of thought possess great intelligence. We find such geniuses as Dionysius and Plotinus; and religious philosophers such as Augustine and Aquinas. In ancient India the centres of learning such as Taksila and Ajeen were bustling with scholars and intellectuals. Here we find the literary masters Kalidaas, Chandarbahaan Bhaat alongside the founder of political philosophy and government, the Machiavelli of the ancient world, Pundit Chankiya. The basis of Maharishi and Mahabhkashu culture was on personal purification as well as the acquisition of metaphysical realities. All this led to a complete philosophy of life. The Vedas, Upanishads, Shaastra, Mahabaraat and other Hindu scriptures are full of religious litanies, while at the same time they are replete with masterpieces of literary, scientific and philosophical insights.
Ancient China also left a unique legacy of knowledge and wisdom. No distinction was made between the philosopher and artisan. The mature and deep intellect contained in the writings of Confucius and Tao cannot fail to impress us. The mass produced minds of our age in comparison are feeble, pathetic and passive. The Chinese were technologically advanced; they invented tools for counting, utilised the wheel, developed the Manjanik (early form of propelled missiles) and experimented with flight; they possessed iron filters, metal armour, watches and pens; they also had printing presses, gunpowder; and they were aware of chemical poisoning. The ancient world is full of technological feats of mastery. The dam of ‘Ma’aarib’ built by the people of Sabaa is from before the time of the Quran; the pyramids of Egypt to this day are a testament to the engineering and building expertise of the ancient Egyptians. Craftsmanship and learning reached great heights. Admittedly, the advance of scientific knowledge and understanding of the world was a bit weak. Then again, perhaps this was to allow future Man to have an equal share in the realm of construction and destruction.
This brief survey of the ancient world shows that the Quran did not appear in a vacuum of knowledge and thinking. The human mind was as sharp then as it is now. There were democracies and absolutist monarchies. The type and quality of knowledge has changed, as too have our tools of destruction and annihilation on a mass scale. However, there is no evidence to claim that the period before the Quran was an age when human thought was primitive and undeveloped. How then could the Quran not be influenced or informed by the accepted knowledge of its time? Surely its views on creation and scientific knowledge must be in line with the prevalent beliefs of that age. At the same time how can the Quran, a book written over a thousand years ago, not be affected by the inevitable gaps (uncertainties) in human knowledge over the ages? And finally how can it be in line with modern advances in scientific knowledge. Did the Quran not borrow ideas from the ancient wisdom and learning about the world?
The Quran inherited the same ancient societies that were passed down from one generation to another. Along with this will have come the wisdom and knowledge of that time linked with a particular way and philosophy of life. Can the Quran be accused of plagiarism? Does it, like the Greeks and Romans, adopt a vague and conjectural approach when discussing the reality of phenomena? Are its views on important and fundamental issues based on a list of assumptions, and does it rely on speculation and guesswork to determine the purpose of life? Is the Prophet of the Quran a sophist who finds a certain pleasure in his own intellectual speculations, such as Plato and Aristotle, and this is what drives him to think?
Man has sunk to unprecedented depths. All around us we see arrogance and hubris, pomp and glory, power and might. The standards of government and control are not based on justice but on exploitation. The son of Adam refuses to acknowledge the humanity of his own brethren. Mankind is divided into ranks. Hatred has seeped into the minds of men; so much so that different religious and cultural traditions are not tolerated. The culture of politics is like that of a pack of wolves who find any excuse to attack defenceless prey. This is a world where the weak are devoured by the strong; and the backlash provokes fear. Extremism has risen like a fully fledged philosophy of life: an unprecedented development in the history of ideas. ‘Let them suffer’ is the motto of both the oppressor and oppressed. The vicious cycle of suffering has no end. Killing and bloodshed is answered by death and destruction. Where the perpetrator has superiority in arms and numbers, the victim has his rage and anger, self-sacrifice and the choice of time and location of an attack. There does not seem to be an end in sight for this war on terror. No civilised society can tolerate the constant threat of terrorism. How can you live a life in peace and tranquillity when the sword of unknown tragedies dangles in front of your eyes?
Our politicians are weak and pander to public opinion – not a single one has demonstrated profound judgement or proposed a middle way between conflicting interests. The tragic consequences of reprisals and counter-reprisals have not been blocked by any political leader in the world. At such a critical point in the history of Mankind our leaders display sheer arrogance that they cannot distinguish between black and white, right and wrong. These diseased minds are incapable of protecting the future survival of the human race. The institution of the United Nations has become laughably ineffective. The nations of the world appear helpless in achieving their most basic goals through the UN. This organisation serves the interest of the rich nations and is dependent on them for survival. It is being led by people who lack basic human values and are therefore unable to play an impartial and effective role.
The representatives of the most powerful nations on earth, from time to time, pass a handful of resolutions in an attempt to prove their humanity. They lack genuineness and their acts of hypocrisy aim to encourage weaker nations to be patient and accept their domination by the powerful. The powerful nations no longer believe in the equality of Mankind. Instead they put their trust in brute force to create divisions amongst the people of the world - a policy of divide and rule that was devised thousands of years earlier by the Priests of Hinduism. But now the whole world is being sucked into this caste system and is being sub-divided into untouchables, Shudras (labourers), Viashyas (Merchants), Kathris (Rulers) and Brahmins (nobility). The less developed nations of the world have no right to become equal citizens of the advanced nations. Their lives, sustenance and growth depend on the handouts distributed by the wealthy nations out of their generosity and kindness. Under the pretext of counter-terrorism, the civilised nations are amassing more powerful and deadly weapons of mass destruction. But the unremitting and horrific counter response from the terrorists have put into doubt their dreams and plans. The tragedy of 9/11 was like a stone cast at the greenhouse of the ‘powerful’. One single stone was enough to unnerve and unleash a wave of panic in the heart of the mighty!
The social tragedy is far worse. The values that drive the powerful (greed, jealousy, fear, blind acceptance of their will, unjust distribution of resources) are dragging the human species down to the evolutionary status of the chimpanzee. This backward mentality has left a deep rift in the ethical dealings of human-kind. In the name of human freedom homosexuality and lesbianism are practised: the responsibilities of family life are neglected. There has been a total breakdown of the family unit. This has led to a massive increase in children who have no idea of who their mother or father is: we are producing individuals who have no bonds or links with society. Each person is busy drinking the poison of individualism. This is a recipe for transforming human society into a rotten and decaying mess. If this ethical crisis continues unchecked the next step could well be the total separation of the male and female species. A society where men and women exist independently, heading for direct collision. There will be no need for men and the only function they will have will be to ensure that womankind can continue to grow the human species, like the Queen Bee who exploits the male drone to fertilize her eggs followed by the instant death of the drone!
The systems of Nature are fixed. But God Himself has allowed Mankind to interfere with the workings of Nature until the appointed time. This is His decree. The clock of destiny is ticking towards the final countdown. The piercing mind can feel and hear its strokes. You don’t need any special fifth sense to hear its chimes. Nor do you have to undergo rigorous spiritual retreats or undertake strict Yoga exercises. The study of the wise book, the Quran, is all you need. If you require further clarification then the Hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) will give you this. Together they contain all the signs of the end of time - ninety nine percent of these have already materialised. Yet we have hope that things will change. Our hope does not rest with political leaders: but with the One who is in absolute control of the Cosmos. He who has made compassion his motto and made it dominate all of His other attributes. It is He who has made room on the plane of time and space for the preservation of the human species. But O Man! O Muslim! Where is your Quran?
The Quran delineates the principles of knowledge. The speech of God is the highest source of knowledge and wisdom. The issue is not whether you believe or know this. Whoever wants to access the Quran must have an understanding of the nature of the data he is investigating. The Quran is not the opinion of an armchair philosopher or writer. It is not the knowledge of someone trying to unravel the meaning of events and phenomenon but of one who is their creator. Neither is it the product of a tortured mind who responds to its suffering and problems by adopting a particular thought and methodology to cope.
It is possible that some intellectual may object to God’s justice; or find that his aesthetic taste is not similar to God’s; or regard His ethical laws as extreme; or claim that they undermine human dignity and respect; or complain about slavery; or criticise the rules of marriage. Whatever it may be, such a person has not acquired the quality of patience and resilience (Sabr). This principle underlies the Quran’s approach to knowledge. We are quick to judge and condemn – we do not want to challenge our preconceived ideas and prejudices. The option of Sabr requires painstaking study, labour and an objective mind. We opt for the easy option of rejection without reflection. As the Quran states:
How can you have patience about things the knowledge of which you comprehend not (18:68)
The vast distance of time and space that separates the critics from the book of God is a major obstacle that has to be overcome first. No human being can ever claim to be free from the influence and constraints of the era and land in which he dwells. Even if he lives to be a hundred years he cannot acquire the knowledge that will be discovered centuries later. Such a person is not the creator of the Heavens and the Earth and nor is he able to perceive reality from the perspective of one who has created these realities. All thinkers observe events and phenomenon from the perspective of their time: they are the products of their age. This short-sightedness is the basis of intellectual misunderstanding and difference. How can someone who is intoxicated with his own intellectual supremacy and is unable to resolve his inferiority/superiority complex ever find the Quran suitable or agreeable?
If the system of requital of human beings is based on limiting our freedom to indulge all our passions, and reward and punishment is linked to the choices we make, then the human race cannot unilaterally withdraw from the workings of these laws just because they do not agree with its outlook. We are bound to them in the same way as we are to the laws of physics. If in this day and age you claim to free yourself from compliance and servitude, you will find that God really has no objection to this. It is God’s grace that has given you the opportunity to think all your good thoughts. But God does not allow the personal reflections of individual thinkers to have universal sanction. Intellectuals comprise a small percentage of the human population: should God abdicate the guidance of the whole of Mankind to their whims and fancies?
If in relation to marriage God has allowed men to have more than one wife, you will find that it is only a small fraction of presumptuous women who feel the need to oppose this. These cultured, intellectual and working women are a mere insignificant statistic from the three billion women that live on Planet Earth. They seem to believe that the Quran was revealed for them alone, and it does not have to take into account all the other women living in all other periods of time and their issues both past and present. It is only God who can have the knowledge of all times and ages and a universal perspective. Our views are self-centred, localised and limited. The Quran also states another reason why God’s statements should take precedence:
It may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you like a thing whilst it is bad for you. Allah knows and you know not (2:216)
Can we accept that another human being or creature can be God? He has more complete and perfect knowledge than us. This verse is sufficient as an explanation of the constraints placed on our free will. The meaning of events, whether positive or negative, cannot be determined until it has run its course and the final outcome is visible. This is beyond human capacity and knowledge.
Man has not yet fully understood the workings of the human mind. Do we really know who it is that thinks? Has science been able to identify the origin of thought: is it really generated by us, or are our thoughts travellers from alien worlds who temporarily reside in our minds? Like Angels or Demons they cast their ideas, which produce certain states within us, and are responsible for our choices. Can the mind be cardiographed like the heart to show ‘vessels’ that carry thoughts and ideas to the brain? All that Man has is the capacity to understand these and put these feelings and hunches into words leading to action. I am convinced that in times to come Man will have evidence to prove what God has stated in a few simple words:
And you desire not a thing except that Allah, the Lord of the worlds desires it (81:29)
Our wills are subject to His will. It is He who has permitted us this free will and we exercise it within the constraints he has placed.
The world of the human mind is in need of further exploration. Its vastness is linked to the mutual connections that it makes. Our desire to investigate this microcosm is inversely proportional to the huge interest we show in researching the Macrocosm. Do we imagine that we will one day exhaust our research of the universe and then we will have time to explore the mind? Do we have this time? Has any other human civilisation in the past managed to achieve all of its scientific, literary and social plans and had time left to understand itself and its role? This time Man seems more optimistic: his technology is sophisticated and his thinking is precise. But the causes which led to the destruction of former civilisations can still be found today. With great regret it has to be said that the civilised and cultured man of today has a lower ethical standard than past nations. He is also more inclined to support forces of destruction. Modern Man may be far superior in terms of science and empirical research than earlier civilisations, but at the same time at the social, cultural and ethical level he has adopted a course that could result in a major catastrophe at any time. He is far inferior in terms of justice, morality, upright character, mutual care, compassion and enterprise.
An English Edition of Muqaddama-tul-Quran (pp.182-197)
An English Edition of Muqaddama-tul-Quran by Prof.Ahmad Rafique Akhtar